Curriculum | Bachelor of Physiotherapy | BIOMECHANICS | Paper Code – 03050204

Bachelor of Physiotherapy- II year

Paper Code – 03050204


Teaching Hours: 160 Hrs

Theory: 120

Practical: 40

Theory: 80 Marks

Practical: 80Marks

Time:3 Hours


Note: For Paper setters /Examiners

  • Paper setter is required to set eight questions from the entire syllabus out of which 5 questions is to be attempted, each carrying 16 marks.


This Course Supplements the Knowledge of anatomy and enables the student to have a better understanding of the principles of biomechanics and their application in musculoskeletal and various other dysfunctions.


S No. TOPIC Learning Objectives Content Methodology Time (Hrs)


Describe the mechanics of force system, equilibrium, lever and pulley.  To cover Types of Motion planes of motion direction of motion and quantity of motion.

1.      Define forces force vectors components of forces.

2.      Describe gravity segmental centers of gravity centers of gravity line of gravity of the human body stability and centers of gravity relocation of the centers of gravity.

3.      Describe reaction forces Newton low of reaction.

4.      Describe equilibrium- low of inertia and establishing equilibrium of an object.

5.      Describe objects in motion low of acceleration joint distraction in a linear force system and force of friction.

6.      Describe concurrent force system: composition of forces muscle action lines total muscle force vector divergent muscle pulls anatomic pulleys.

7.      Describe parallel force systems: First class levers second class levers- Third class levers – Torque- Mechanical Advantage.

8.      Define moment arm. Moment arm of a muscle force. Moment arm of gravity and Anatomic pulleys.

9.      Describe equilibrium of a lever.




Explanation through ppt, charts models, videos

Students Seminar









Describe the joint structure and function of joints

And biomechanics of Connective tissue


To Cover

1.      Joint design

2.      Materials used in human joints

3.      General properties of connective tissues

4.       Human joint design

5.      Joint function

6.      Joint motion

7.      General effects of disease, injury and immobilization

8.      Biomechanics of Connective tissue-Ligament, tendon, cartilage, bone


Lecture discussion/SIS


Explanation through ppt, charts models, videos






Describe the muscle structure and function of muscles To Cover

1.      Mobility and stability functions of muscles

2.      Elements of muscle structure

3.      Muscle function

4.      Effects of immobilization, injury and aging

Lecture discussion


Explanation through ppt, charts models, videos

Poster presentation



4 Biomechanics of the Thorax and Chest wall


Describe the biomechanics of the thoracic and chest wall To cover

1.    General structure and function

2.    Rib cage and the muscles associated with the rib cage

3.    Ventilatory motions: its coordination and integration

4.    Developmental aspects of structure and function

5.    Changes in normal structure and function I relation to pregnancy, scoliosis and COPD

Lecture discussion


Explanation through ppt, charts models, videos


Horizontal integerated teaching





The Temporomandibular Joint


Describe the temporo mandibular joint structure, function and dysfunction To cover

1.      General features, structure , function and dysfunction

Lecture discussion


Explanation through ppt, charts models, videos



6 Biomechanics of the vertebral column


Describe the biomechanics of structure and function of vertebral column To cover

1.    General structure and function

2.    Regional structure and function – Cervical region, thoracic region, lumbar region, sacral region

3.    Lumbar – pelvic rhythm

4.    Muscles of the vertebral column

5.    General effects of injury and aging

6.    Kinetics and kinematics during different activities such as squatting, sitting, standing waking, bending

Lecture discussion


Explanation through ppt, charts models, videos



7 Biomechanics of the peripheral joints


Describe the biomechanics of the peripheral joints such as shoulder complex, elbow complex, wrist complex, hip complex, knee complex and ankle, foot complex To cover

1.      The shoulder complex: Structure and components of the shoulder complex and their integrated function including dynamic stability of the gleno humeral join, Scapulo humeral rhythm, scapulo thoracic and gleno humeral contributions

2.       The elbow complex: Structure and function of the elbow joint – humeroulnar and humeroradial articulations, superior and inferior radioulnar joints; mobility and stability of the elbow complex; the effects of immobilization and injury.

3.       The wrist and hand complex: Structural components and functions of the wrist complex;structure of the hand complex; prehension; functional position of the wrist and hand.

4.       The hip complex: structure and function of the hip joint; hip joint pathology- arthrosis, fracture, bony abnormalities of the femur including function of hip- Rotation, between pelvis, lumbar spine and hip, Pelvis motion, anterior posterior pelvic tilting, lumbar pelvic rhythm, lateral pelvic tilting, pelvic rotation.


5.       The knee complex: structure and function of the knee joint – tibiofemoral joint and patellofemoral joint; effects of injury and disease including tibiofemoral joint: range of motion, flexion and extension, rotation, abduction and adduction, locking and unlocking.


6.       The ankle and foot complex.: structure and function of the ankle joint, subtalar joint talo calcaneonavicular joint, transverse tarsal joint, tarso metatarsal joints, metatarsophalangeal joints, inter phalangeal joints, structure and function of the plantar arches, muscles of the ankle and foot, deviations from normal structure and function – Pes Planus and Pes Cavus

Lecture discussion


Explanation through ppt, charts models, videos



Students Seminars


Group Discussions


Problem based learning




8 Analysis of Posture and Gait Describe the analysis of posture and gait during static and dynamic movement  To cover

1.      Static and dynamic posture, postural control, kinetics and kinematics of posture, ideal posture analysis of posture, effects of posture on age, pregnancy, occupation and recreation; general features of gait, gait initiation, kinematics and kinetics of gait, energy requirements, kinematics and kinetics of the trunk and upper extremities in relation to gait, stair case climbing and running, effects of age, gender, assistive devices, disease, muscle weakness, paralysis, asymmetries of the lower extremities, injuries and mal alignments in gait; Movement Analysis : ADL activities like sitting – to standing, lifting, various grips , pinches.

Lecture discussion


Explanation through ppt, charts models, videos


Students seminars


Demonstration of pathological gaits


Poster presentation



PRACTICALTeaching hrs-40

  1. Identify anatomical landmarks of body
  2. Identify Muscle work of various movements in body at different angle.
  3. Identify normal and abnormal posture.
  4. Normal gait with it parameters and identify abnormal gait with the problems in it.

Reference books

  1. Practice exercise therapy- Hollis- Blackwell Scientific Publication
  2. Therapeutic Exercises- Basmajjan- Williams and Wilkins.
  3. Therapeutic Exercises Foundations and Techniques -Kisner and Colby- F.A. davis.
  4. Principle of exercise of therapy – Gardiner -C. B.S. Delhi
  5. Hydrotherapy, principle and practice- Campion – Butterworth Heinmann.
  6. Muscle testing and functions – Kendall- Williams &Wiikins.
  7. Deniels and Worthingham’s- Muscle testing- Hislop& Montgomery – W. B. Saunders.
  8. Measuremeot of joint motion: I gUide to Goniometry- Norkins&White­F.A. Davis.
  9. Biomechanical principles: Frenkel
  10. Biomechanics: Norkins
Admissions Open 2019-20