Curriculum | Bachelor of Physiotherapy | Pathology | Paper Code – 03050201

 Bachelor of Physiotherapy- II Year 

Paper Code – 03050201




TIME: 1.30Hrs.

Note: For Paper setters / Examiners

  • Paper setters required to set 6 questions from the entire syllabus.
  • Student will be required to attempt four questions out of six carrying ten marks each.

 Course Objective:-at the end of the course, the student will be able to

  1. Acquire the knowledge of concepts of cell injury and changes Produced thereby in different tissues and organs; Capacity of the body in healing Process.
  2. Recall the Etio-pathological effects and the Clinico ­pathological Correlation of common infection and non­infectious diseases.
  • Acquire the knowledge of concepts of Neoplasia with reference to the Etiology, gross and microscopic features diagnosis and prognosis in different tissues and organs of the body.
  1. Correlate normal and altered .morphology of different organ systems in different diseases needed for understanding disease process and their clinical significance (with special emphasis on neuro-musculoskeletal and cardio-respiratory system).
  2. Acquire knowledge of common immunological disorders and their resultant effects on the human body.
  3. Understand in brief, about the Hematological diseases and their resultant effects on the human body.


S.No Topic Learning Objectives

(At the end of the session the student should be able to)

Teaching Guidelines Methodology Time



General Pathology


Describe concepts of cell injury and changes produced thereby in different tissues and organs To cover

a)      Cell injury- causes, mechanisms with special reference Physical, Chemical and toxic injury and ionizing radiation.

b)      Reversible cell injury’ (degenerations)-types, morphology­cellular swelling, fatty change.

c)      Intracellular accumulations -hyaline change and mucoid,change.

d)      Irreversible cell injury, types of necrosis, apoptosis, Gangrene: types and etiopathogenesis,

e)      Pathological calcification-dystrophic       and metastasis, pathogenesis and morphology

f)       Extra- cellular accumulation-amyloidosis.

g)       Pigments and pigmentations

Lecture discussion 10


Inflammation and Repair Describe the  inflammation process and wound healing at various sites including bones, nerves and muscles To cover

  1. Acute inflammations features; causes, vascular & cellular events, morphologic variations.
  2. Inflammatory cell & mediators,
  3. Chronic inflammation:-causes, types, non-specific &granulomatous with examples.
  4. Wound healing by primary & secondary intention factors promoting & delaying healing process, healing at various sites including bones, nerve & muscle.
  5. Regeneration &repair.


Lecture discussion  


3 Immun Pathology (Basic concepts)


Describe the basic concept of immune system and organ transplantation To cover

a)Immune system: – organization, cell- Antibodies- Regulations of immune responses. or


c)Secondary immune deficiency including HIV

d)Organ transplantation

Lecture discussion 5
4 Circulatory disturbances


Describe the different types of disturbances in circulatory system To cover

a.       Edema- pathogenesis, Types, transudate, exudates.

b.      Chronic venous congestion- lung, liver and spleen .

c.       Thrombosis- formation fate and effects .

d.      Embolism- types clinical effects

e.        Infarction- types, common sites.

f.        Shocks- Pathogenesis, Types, morphologic changes.


Lecture discussion 7
5 Growth Disturbance Describe the Neoplasia with reference to the etiology ,gross and microscopic features diagnosis and prognosis in different tissues and organs of the body To cover

a.       Atrophy-malformation, agenesis, dysplasia.

b.      Neoplasia- classification, histogenesis, biologic behavior, differences between benign & malignant tumors.

c.       Malignant neoplasm- grades, stages, local invasion &distal spread.

d.      Carcinogenesis- environmental carcinogensis

i)                   Chemical, viruses, radiations.

ii)                 Physical.

iii)               Occupational,

iv)               Heredity and miscellaneous factors.

e.       Precancerous lesions & carcinoma in situ.

f.        Tumor & host interactions- systemic effects- metastasis or spread of tumors especially affecting bones, spinal cord leading to paraplegia etc.


Lecture discussion 6
6 Diseases of Blood


Describe the hematological diseases and their resultant effects on the human body To cover

a)      Red cell disorders, anemia, polycythemia.

b)      Non Neoplastic disorders and neoplastic proliferation of white cell.

c)      Bleeding Disorders: – DIC, Thrombocytopenia, coagulation Disorders.


Lecture discussion 5
7 Topics in Special Pathology Describe morphology of different organ systems in different diseases needed for understanding disease process and their clinical significance To cover

a.      Cardio Vascular system: – Atherosclerosis, Ischemic heart disease- (Myocardial infarctions)-Pathogenesis, pathology, hypertension, congestive cardiac Failure, Rheumatic heart diseases and Peripheral vascular diseases.

b.      Respiratory System: – COPD, pneumonia (lobar, broncho& viral), Tuberculosis: – primary and secondary, morphologic types, pleuritis, Complications, lung collapses & atelectasis.

c.       Neuropathology:- reaction of nervous tissue to injury infection­& Ischemia pyogenic tuberculous and viral meningitis, cerebro­vascular diseases, Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, embolism, aneurysm, hypoxia infarction & hemorrhage,effects of Hypotension on CNS,


d.      Bone & joints:-Fracture healing, osteomyelitis, rickets, osteomalacia, bone tumors, osteoporosis, spondylosis, PID, haemarthrosis, gout, T.B. Arthritis, degenerative and inflammatory Arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Ankylosis spondylitis, tenosynovitis.


e.       Hepatic diseases:-  Jaundice


Lecture discussion  


8 Clinical pathology To understand and describe the clinical implications of  Anemia,total leucocyte, differential leucocyte count,Deficiency disorders of vitamin A,B,C,D To cover

Anemias, total leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count, eosinophilia, ESR, C P K, Deficiency disorders of vitamin A,B,C,D


Lecture discussion 5

Text books:-

  1. Text book of pathology by Harsh Mohan
  2. Basic pathology by cotran Kumar Robbins